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A Century Old Anglo-Italian Treaty: Key for Somalia-Kenya border Disputes

By Abdirasaq H. Nurre Xubey, PhD

This nearly century old Anglo-Italian treaty on parts of East Africa, Jubbaland in particular, is a significant document for the current Somalia-Kenya border disputes (Page 3 and the map are key). The treaty was originally signed in London in July 15, 1924, but was ratified a year later in London in May 1, 1925. The treaty, though parts of Somali people and their land were illegally ceded, is a relevant document for the current and for future border disputes between Kenya and Somalia – and between Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia for that matter.

Jubaland, Map to accompany Anglo-Italian Convention 1924

The boundary line, as delineated in the treaty, starts from the confluence of the Ganale and Dawa Rivers which form the larger Jubba River, i.e., Gedweyne/northern Gedo region at the present time. Gedweyne, near the “Ethiopia” border, is around 20km East of Dolow district of Somalia. The second most important part of the boundary is Malka’re area, which is located at the Southern bed of the Dawo River – Somalia side. Dawa River flows 60 to 70km along Somalia-Ethiopia border. Malka’re is where Somalia border meets Kenya (West) and Ethiopia (North). It is the starting point of Kenya’s 700 km-long wall along Somalia border. Malka’re is now part of Beled-Hawa district of Somalia. The straight line of the border moves southwest until it reaches the coast and proceeds west of the SOUTHERMOST of the four islets of Ras Kiambone district of Somalia. This area is the third most important part of the treaty.

I found this document in 2009 in a microfiche at Herman B Wells library at Indiana University, Indiana USA. The microfiche document, which was among hundreds of old British treaties, did not include any map of the areas described in the treaty. Seven years later, I found the document again, this time included a map, from ProQuest database at Herman B Wells library. Therefore, ProQuest database owns the copyright of the current document. Please, see the attached document of the 1924 Anglo-Italian treaty.


Treaty between the United Kingdom and Italy regulating certain Questions concerning the Boundaries of their respective Territories in East Africa.

Signed at London, July 15,1924.
{Ratificaiions exchanged at London, May 1, 1925.)

His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of India, and His Majesty the King of Italy, desiring to regulate, in a spirit of goodwill, certain questions concerning the boundaries of their respective territories in East Africa, have named as their plenipotentiaries: His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of India: The Right Honourable James Ramsay MacDonald, M.P., His Prime Minister and Principal Secretary of ‘ State for Poreign Affair^ * And His Majesty the King of Italy: His Excellency II Marchese della Torretta del Principi di Lampedusa, His Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary at the Court of St. James;

Read More: A Century Old Anglo-Italian Treaty- Key for Somalia-Kenya border Disputes

By Abdirasaq H. Nurre Xubey, PhD

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